Amphibians are the vertebrate animals that can live in 2 realms. The word amphibian is based on 2 Greek words meaning “Amphi” meaning two, and “bios” meaning life. Most of these groups are vertebrate (vertebrate), cold-blooded (Poikiloterm) and 4-footed (Tetrapoda) animals. Amphibians are animals that have a perfect metamorphosis process.
This group of animals can live in water or on land, usually when in the water they breathe by wearing Gill, and while on the ground breathing in the lungs. Amphibious skin is a moist structure with many useful blood vessels in order to adjust its place of life. There are about 5000 species of amphibians already known.
- His limbs were head and body (e.g. frog) or head, body and tail (e.g. salamander).
- Amphibians are the only vertebrates that have undergone a perfect metamorphosis. This means that amphibians have very different adult forms than their forms when they are born and they experience the larval phase.
- Amphibians also have liver, pancreas, and adrenal glands.
- Amphibians are cold-blooded animals, meaning the body temperature setting is done externally (outside the body).
- It has 4 feet (2 pairs) and there is a membrane between its fingers, except in the order Caecilia (no legs).
- The skin is smooth, thin, porous, slimy, usually toxic and always in a humid state.
Classification of amphibious types
1. Order of Anura
The order of Anura is a member of an amphibious group whose trademark is “no tail”, one of the members of the Anura order is that we generally call frogs, there are about 4000 species already recognizing in this order
The order of Anura consists of several orders and families, namely:
- The Subordo Archaeobactrachia are: Familia Discoglossidae, Familia Ascaphidae, Familia Leiopelmatidae.
- The suborder Mesobatrachia Familia Pipidae are: Familia Rhinophrydae, Familia Pelobatidae, Familia Pelodytidae.
- Subordo: Neobactrachia: Familia Bufonidae, Familia Microhylidae, Familia Ranidae, Familia Pelobatidae (Megophrydae), Familia Rhacophoridae, Familia Dendrobatidae, Familia Hylidae, Familia Pelodryadidae, Familia Myobatrachidae, Familia Sooglossidae, Familia Psedidae.
2. Order Caudata (Urodela)
The order of Caudata is an amphibious group whose trademark is to have a tail. The word Cauda comes from the Lati language which means tail. The body of the order is the head, body, tail, and limb. Members of this order can have a varied body size and their tail is almost the same length as the body, but there is a longer than the body. Some species have gills, while others breathe by using the lungs.
3. The Gymnophiona Order
The Gymnophiona order or Apoda is an amphibious group whose characteristic “no legs”.